Usability in daily life – Psychology of Usability

Psychology, a science of behavior and mind, is frequently being mentioned in the field of user experience and usability research. For example, one of the very critical factors of usability, learnability (Norman, 2013), included one of the most profound theories in developmental psychology: conditioning.

Conditioning is a concept based on the classical conditioning experiment posed by Pavlov(1927) and known as Pavlov’s dog.Continue Reading »

Typographic Accessibility: Design Your Type

As written language is taking up the majority space of a web or app interface, one of the most achievable ways of boosting the usability and accessibility of your digital product is to design your type thoroughly.

Legibility vs. Readability

Although the accessibility in typography is not an exact science, there are two elements designers should consider: legibility and readability.… Continue Reading »

Improving The Color Accessibility For Color-Blind Users

With 4.5% of the global population experiencing color blindness, 4% suffering from low vision, and another 0.6% being blind, visual difficulties with using the web are more prevalent than you might appreciate. Women are less likely to have this disease when approximately every twelfth man is prone to it. Designing for color-blind people can be easily forgotten because most designers aren’t color-blind.Continue Reading »

Usability and Accessibility: Inclusive Design to Create an Accessible Design

Accessibility is one of the most fundamental elements in User Experience, and it is proven to develop a curated experience for broader user segments, especially users with disabilities.

So what is inclusive design and accessibility?
The inclusive design itself is a design methodology that enables and draws on the full range of human diversity. As we apply this design methodology, we would be able to provide accessibility to the interface, which is an attribute that makes an experience open to all for a wider range of users.… Continue Reading »

The Ethical Issues of A/B testing in the Tech World

In recent years, ethics in usability research has increasingly become a concern among users. Large corporations track, monitor, and manipulate interfaces to evoke an intended reaction from a user. An example of this would be with A/B testing, which is a standard UX research method that can often yield some ethical issues.

A/B testing is a method in which different variations of a webpage or app exist and are shown to different users with the purpose of evaluating which one will perform better (Optipedia).… Continue Reading »

Ethics in Usability Research: Invasive Tracking

Shadowing, monitoring, and recording of users has become increasingly sophisticated. As these services become more robust, providing increasingly granular and specific information, they can raise the risk level for users. They tout many advantages for researchers but their activities are often non-consensual with respect to users. The user is unaware of their depth or just how much they are divulging while simply browsing.… Continue Reading »

Ethics in Usability Research: Exposing Dark Patterns



User experience professionals are currently positioned as the greatest potential perpetrators of, as well as the first line of defense against abusive design. We must understand the nuanced modus operandi behind dark design practices and examine our own and others’ context, intent,, and execution. This discussion on dark patterns seeks to encourage our Pratt community to advocate for user-centric design as future professionals.… Continue Reading »

What is the Hawthorne Effect?


During usability research, there could be many cognitive biases happened that finally violate the accuracy of the data. Both researchers and users can have biases, such as framing effect, confirmation bias, social desirability bias, etc (Subramanian, 2018). Here I would like to introduce one of the cognitive bias, called the Hawthorne effect.

What is the Hawthorne effect?

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Internal Review: Ethical Concerns of C/D Testing by Private Companies



A/B testing has long been a tactic for companies evaluatingtwo versions of a landing page, web page or mobile app feature” (Rawat). The most common A/B scenario involves changing aesthetic details like button size or graphics adjustments and deploying those changes among active users to test their effect. However, the ethical impropriety of major social networks exempt from the federal “common rule” have created a sinister perversion of the A/B test that is deeper, more deceptive, and reliant on implicit rather than informed consent.Continue Reading »